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Tuesday, January 23, 2018

Nigerian Igbos' Comments About Names Beginning With "Chi" & About The Frequent Use Of Certain Igbo Names

Edited by Azizi Powell

This pancocojams posts provides a compilation of comments about Igbo names from people writing on nairaland.com [Nigerian] online discussion threads about Igbo names.

The first section of this post quotes comments about the frequent use of the given names that include the name element "chi" and prefix or as a suffix, or otherwise include "chi".

The second section of this post quotes selected comments from those same discussion threads about the frequent use* of sixteen Igbo personal names.

The "frequently given" names [as indicated in these comments] are as follows:

(given in alphabetical order, and not in any ranking order)
Arinze
Chiamaka
Chinedu
Chioma
Chizutere (including versions such as Zicora and Ziteora)
Emeka
Nneka
Nkechi
Ngozi
Ijeoma
Mmesomma (Mmesomachukwu)
Obonna
Uche
Uchenna
Ugonna
Uzor
-snip-
A few additional Igbo names are mentioned in some of these comments.

Information about the meanings of these names are given in the Addendum to this post, even if those meanings are included in the comments themselves.

*Note that I've used the term "frequent use" rather than "most popular". It seems to me that "popular" has a positive connotation, but some of the commenters citing the names that are cited in these comments aren't happy about how often those names are given to Igbo children.

The content of this post is presented for etymological, historical, and cultural purposes.

This post is part of an ongoing pancocojams series on African names and naming traditions.

All copyrights remain with their owners.

Thanks to all those who are quoted in this post.

****
DISCLAIMER:
The comments quoted in this post are the opinions of the commenters on those featured discussion threads.

It appears that most of the people commenting on those discussion threads were Igbos living in Nigeria. At one commenter on one of these discussion threads identified herself as an English woman who is married to a Igbo man.

As an African American who may not be of any Igbo ancestry, who has never been to Nigeria, who has never knowingly been in direct or indirect contact with any Igbos, and who doesn't speak Igbo, I take no position about the general opinions about Igbo naming customs that are given in this post.

The specific names that these commenters cited may not actually have been frequently used the names for all Igbos in Nigeria. Furthermore, if these cited names were (or are still) frequently used by Igbos in Nigeria, they may have been (or may still be) most frequently used by certain age groups, and certain populations of Igbos.

****
PANCOCOJAMS EDITOR'S NOTE
These excerpts are divided into two sections: "General comments about "chi prefix names" and "Specific "frequently given" names".

The excerpts in each section are given in chronological order based on the publishing date of the first comment that is quoted from that particular source. These excerpts are numbered for referencing purposes only as are multiple comments from the same excerpt.

I believe that these discussions are still open for comments. As such, after this pancocojams post is published there may be additional comments on those discussion threads that mention the popularity of specific Igbo names.

****
GENERAL COMMENTS ABOUT 'CHI" NAMES
EXCERPT #1
From http://www.nairaland.com/11383/igbo-names-meanings/10
Re: Igbo Names & Their Meanings by rubi(f): 3:32pm On Jul 15, 2008
"I love igbo names so much but I don't know why they always begin with chi
is it that we love God too much or what."

****
EXCERPT #2
From http://www.nairaland.com/1536317/some-funky-igbo-names-meaning
Re: Some Funky Igbo Names And Their Meaning by odumchi: 5:50am On Nov 30, 2013
..."To be honest, I'm tired of the "Chi craze". We need more diversity".

****
EXCERPT #3
1. From http://www.nairaland.com/1902797/common-beautiful-names-igbo-tribe
Re: Common Beautiful Names From The Igbo Tribe by Afrocatalyst: 6:10am On Sep 16, 2014
"Do we have to put Chi in all the names. I need core igbo names pls for my unborn daughter."

**
2. Re: Common Beautiful Names From The Igbo Tribe by thunder74(m): 6:15am On Sep 16, 2014
Most of the names has "Chukwu" or Chi" before or after.

**
3. Re: Common Beautiful Names From The Igbo Tribe by basille(m): 8:08am On Sep 16, 2014
"All core and authentic igbo names has diminished over times and the little ones remaining is either been contaminated with the word"chukwu/chi" by over religious freaks or englishdized by jobless youth with no comprehension and appreciation of their culture.

**
4. From http://www.nairaland.com/1902797/common-beautiful-names-igbo-tribe/2
Re: Common Beautiful Names From The Igbo Tribe by jcmaiah(m): 6:51am On Sep 16, 2014
"My Igbo name remains the sweetest Igbo name of all time... Chihurumnanya, but since I am male I changed it to Chukwuhurumnanya. In ancient Igbos a mans name don't start with Chi, rather Chukwu. A womans name can end with both chukwu or chi but cant start with it.
Example... Chima=female, chukwuma=male.
again some names that are 99% used by female has male users too.
Example... Chioma=female, Chukwuoma=male.
Chiamaka=female, Chukwuamaka=male.
Igbo name abuses are common in abia state and part of ebonyi. In abia u see a man bearing Chinyere or Chioma."

**
5. From http://www.nairaland.com/1902797/common-beautiful-names-igbo-tribe/10
Re: Common Beautiful Names From The Igbo Tribe by Nobody: 6:31pm On Sep 16, 2014
..."The 'Chi' prefix in igbo names is as old as the igbo race,just that it is rampantly used in contemporary times."

**
6. From http://www.nairaland.com/1902797/common-beautiful-names-igbo-tribe/11
Re: Common Beautiful Names From The Igbo Tribe by bigfrancis21(m): 1:10am On Sep 17, 2014
[begin quote] "thunder74: Most of the names has "Chukwu" or Chi" before or after." [end quote]

"It goes to explain to you the importance and significance of 'chi' in Igbo mythology. Before the introduction of christianity, Igbo people believed every person had a guardian spirit or chi that followed every individual around and helping that individual on his spiritual journey on earth. The concept of chi was so important that it reflected greatly in the names of Igbo people. After the introduction of christianity, the concept of 'chi' was modified to refer to God almighty(chi ukwu = Chukwu)."

**
7. From http://www.nairaland.com/1902797/common-beautiful-names-igbo-tribe/12
Re: Common Beautiful Names From The Igbo Tribe by Nobody: 4:35pm On Sep 23, 2014
"Everything chukwu chukwu"

**
8. Re: Common Beautiful Names From The Igbo Tribe by Vessi: 10:56am On Sep 24, 2014
"we love and respect God. Any problem you have with our culture?"

**
9. Re: Common Beautiful Names From The Igbo Tribe by nnenneigbo(f): 9:59am On Aug 08, 2016
[begin quote] TheArchangel:
"These are the new generation Igbo names with Christian undertones/ beliefs. A whole lot of the names has God as either the suffix or prefix."
[end quote]

"I won't name my kids anything with chi, it's too common. I'll go with authentic names like adaobi, ike, adaora etc lol."
-snip-
Pancocojams Editor's note: I believe that "chi" is pronounced the same as the English word "she".

"Chukwa" [chi + ukwa] is another element that is found in many Igbo names. "Chukwa" means "mighty God" and is the Igbo referent (and "Olisa") for the Supreme Deity.

Additional information about "chi" is given below, particularly in the quotes about the meaning of the name "Chioma".

****
SPECIFIC FREQUENTLY GIVEN IGBO NAMES
EXCERPT #1
1. From http://www.nairaland.com/11383/igbo-names-meanings/8
Re: Igbo Names & Their Meanings by SoWhat1: 11:26pm On Mar 15, 2008
"Over-used Igbo female names:
Nneka
Nkechi
Ngozi
Ijeoma
Chioma
Uche

Over-use Igbo male names:

Emeka
Obinna
Uzor

No Igbo family is complete without one Nkechi, one Nneka, an at least one Emeka. I went to a house warming an there were 12 females their named Nneka and 8 Nkechis, and it was not a large party. I am not saying these are not nice names with deep meanings, but I would like to see some variety and creativity. Just a thought."

**
2. From http://www.nairaland.com/11383/igbo-names-meanings/14
Re: Igbo Names & Their Meanings by asha80(m): 7:20am On Nov 09, 2011
[beginning quote] "Ileke-IdI:

Arinze is a Yoruba name, dear. Segun Arinze. Or is he mixed?
[quote ended]


"ignorance.

arinze is a popular igbo name and segun arinze is mixed.

Re: Igbo Names & Their Meanings by Crayola1: 7:21am On Nov 09, 2011
^^
Thank you.

He chose that name because it was suggested by someone that having two ethnic names would make him more "mysterious" to viewers in films

I'm not even Nigerian and I knew this dear, please school up failing has never been cute [kiss emoji]

http://nigerian-movies.net/starprofiles/segun.php
http://www.modernghana.com/movie/8124/3/many-people-have-bad-impression-about-mesegun-arin.html [Pancocojams Editor: This link no longer active.]

And yes he's has an Igbo mother and Yoruba father.

With the full name of Arinze being Arinzechukwu.

Class dismissed. Hit the books"

****
EXCERPT #2:
From http://www.nairaland.com/208039/igbo-baby-names
1. Re: Igbo Baby Names by LoveAlways(f): 3:49am On Dec 16, 2008
"Hey All

What is a nice Igbo baby name for a girl beginning with the letter "C"?

Thanks"

**
2. Re: Igbo Baby Names by Nobody: 2:30am On Dec 17, 2008
"I love th ename Chioma and Emeka.

I'll pro'lly name my angel Chioma. Lovely name"

**
3. Re: Igbo Baby Names by Nobody: 2:45am On Dec 17, 2008
Chioma is way too common. Chinasa is just fine.

Chika, chiamaka, chukwuka . . . beautiful names you can also consider"

**
4. Re: Igbo Baby Names by Nobody: 2:50am On Dec 17, 2008
It's common in naija not here
And why does it matter if it's common? It's the beauty of the name that counts"

****
EXCERPT #3:
http://www.nairaland.com/598034/igbo-names

Igbo Names by jovi: 9:37am On Feb 03, 2011
Pls examples of some uncommon igbo names?.(i.e no Emeka's, ngozi, e.t.c)

Thanks!
-snip-
This comment implies that Emeka and Ngozi are common (i.e. frequently used) Igbo names.

****
EXCERPT #4
From http://www.nairaland.com/1145142/modern-igbo-baby-names
"Modern Igbo Baby Names by Nnenwoke: 12:49am On Dec 29, 2012
So I've been at a loss for Igbo names that speak to me. Don't get me wrong, I love the meaning of our names but I want more than the typical Ugonna, Emeka etc. for our little guy. I've noticed a wave of funky baby girl names and I am hoping to compile a list of fun names for boys. If you know any, please, please share! Thanks everyone."

****
EXCERPT #5
From http://www.nairaland.com/1145142/modern-igbo-baby-names
Re: Modern Igbo Baby Names by Nnenwoke: 6:54pm On Jan 02, 2013
"Thanks everyone for your suggestions! I actually do like Chimezie but again, know quite a few and dearfriend, you have some interesting recommendations. Will see if I can get my husband to buy into any of them. Other suggestions are still welcomed! Thanks again"

****
EXCERPT #6
From http://www.nairaland.com/1536317/some-funky-igbo-names-meaning
Re: Some Funky Igbo Names And Their Meaning by Nobody: 2:01pm On Dec 03, 2013
"Op, u compiled that thing without Mmesomma?!
most of the children born these days have the name."
-snip-
Op= Original poster = the person who started the discussion

“u compiled that thing” = compiled lists of Igbo given names that don't include the element "chi"

****
EXCERPT #7
From http://www.nairaland.com/1902797/common-beautiful-names-igbo-tribeM
1. Re: Common Beautiful Names From The Igbo Tribe by freshness2020: 6:07am On Sep 16, 2014
"Chinedu-God guides!(most popular male igbo names)

[...]

ChiAmaka..God is so beautiful. (one of most populous female igbo names)"
-snip-
This spelling may be a typo. This name is given as "Chiamakaka" without the capital "A" on other online lists and pages that I've found.

**
2. Common Beautiful Names From The Igbo Tribe by officialcharlz(m): 6:51pm On Sep 14, 2014
"Chizutere- God sent.
a favorite among the igbo community, other versions include zicora, ziteora. it is also unisex."

**
3. Re: Common Beautiful Names From The Igbo Tribe by kackar22: 7:20am On Sep 16, 2014
"Why is everybody catefully avoiding Emeka which remains the most widely answered name for the great igbos till today"

**
4. From http://www.nairaland.com/1902797/common-beautiful-names-igbo-tribe/5
Re: Common Beautiful Names From The Igbo Tribe by Vikthor(m): 8:56am On Sep 16, 2014
"Y'all keep forgetting the most popular one...."Uchenna"..

****
ADDENDUM- MEANINGS OF SPECIFIC NAMES MENTIONED IN THIS POST
[These names are given in alphabetical order]

ARINZE (ARINZECHUKWA)
From http://www.nairaland.com/11383/igbo-names-meanings/23 Re: Igbo Names & Their Meanings by bigfrancis21(m): 2:43am On Nov 10, 2013
"Arinze Chukwu means Thank God. This is how it is used in statements in Anambra Igbo - Arinze Chukwu na Emeka a furo m n'olu taata. Thank God Emeka did not see me at work today."

****
CHIAMAKA
From https://www.behindthename.com/name/chiamaka
"Given Name CHIAMAKA
GENDER: Feminine
USAGE: Western African, Igbo
Meaning & History
Means "God is beautiful" in Igbo.
See All Relations · Show Family Tree
Related Names
DIMINUTIVES: Amaka, Chi, Chichi (Igbo)"

****
CHINEDU
From https://www.behindthename.com/name/chinedu
GENDER: Masculine & Feminine
USAGE: Western African, Igbo
Meaning & History
Means "God leads" in Igbo."

****
CHIOMA
Here are some comments about the name "Chiona" from https://www.behindthename.com/name/chioma/comments
1. "'CHIOMA' literally means good God. But refering to the ancient meaning of 'Chi' as 'luck', 'destiny' or 'personal god' and 'oma' meaning 'good', 'Chioma' could also mean 'good luck', 'good destiny' or 'good personal god'."
― chomie3 8/9/2005

**
2. "Chioma can also be used for men, I know, I am one, and my name is Chioma."
― Chioma 10/29/2006

**
3. "The name 'Chioma' actually originated from the pre-colonial/Christian Igbo (Eastern Nigeria) society where it was believed that each individual has a personal 'god' that guides him or her. It was believed that some people have bad 'chis' (gods) for example people who die young or people who meet with some form of tragedy in their lifetime. Others were believed to have good 'chis' like those who seem to glide through life without misfortunes. The name 'Chioma' was given as a way of praying for 'good luck' so to say for the new born baby."
― chyike 12/6/2006

**
4. "I feel CHIOMA can still stand for Favor or Goodluck since it is an Igbo name and "Chi" can still stand for luck and "Oma" good which means a luck for good, in the other way "Good luck" and good luck also means favor."
― Anonymous User 2/22/2007

**
5. "The name Chioma means more than just "good God", which is the literal translation. Literarily, it means someone that is "lucky" or "favoured". It originates from an Igbo expression, which translates to "you have good God". When you bear "Chioma" as a name, it means you are "a carrier of a good God", implying that things go well with you wherever you go."
― ChyObasi 4/26/2011

****
CHIZUTERE
(including versions of this name such as "Zicora" and "Ziteora")
From https://ask.naija.ng/culture/what-are-popular-igbo-names-and-their-meaning-i29048.html
"Chizutere – ‘god's envoy’. It is one of the most favorite names among Igbo. There are also such versions as Zicora and Ziteora. This name will be suitable both for boys and for girls."

****
EMEKA
From https://www.behindthename.com/name/emeka
"Given Name EMEKA
GENDER: Masculine
USAGE: Western African, Igbo
Expand Name Links
Meaning & History
Means "great deeds" in Igbo. It also functions as a short form of CHUKWUEMEKA.
See All Relations · Show Family Tree
Related Names
VARIANT: Chuks (Igbo)"

**
From https://www.urbandictionary.com/define.php?term=Emeka
"Emeka
An igbo (a nigerian language) name meaning "has done well". Usually begins with a prefix (Chi or Chukwu) like Chukwuemeka, Olisaemeka or Nnaemeka all meaning "God has done well".

He was named Emeka as an appriciation to God.*

#amaka#ebuka#chidluka#chiemela#chidinma

by Anderson Mba July 11, 2006
-snip-
The commenter gave this sentence as an example of how this word is used. Notice the hashtags that the commenter gave of other [frequently used] Igbo names.

**
From http://www.nairaland.com/11383/igbo-names-meanings/2
1. Re: Igbo Names & Their Meanings by Mzi(m): 6:45pm On Nov 02, 2006
"Hi All,

I am a South African and cannot speak Igbo. What does the name Emeka actually mean? I am a great follower of His Excellency Chief EMEKA ANYAOKU. I have always thought that I would name my son after him. But I need to know the meaning of the name first. Regards, Mzi"

**
2. Re: Igbo Names & Their Meanings by kamsi(f): 12:00am On Nov 04, 2006
"Mzi, Emeka is a shortened word. The full name is chukwuemeka which basically means God's grace or more literally that God has done a wonderfull or marvelous work or deed."

****
IJEOMA
From https://www.onlinenigeria.com/nigeriannames/ad.asp?blurb=3025
"IJEOMA translates to "A SUCCESS WISH. WISHING THE PERSON A HAPPY/GOOD JOURNEY ON EARTH." n English. It is common with the Igbo tribe in Nigeria and primarily used by Unisexs"
-snip-
From comments that I've read online, it appears that the name "Ijeoma" is usually only given to females.

****
MMESOMMACHUCKA (MMESOMMA)
From http://www.wivestownhallconnection.com/2013/05/nigerian-igbo-name-for-my-baby.html
"Mmesomachukwu- Mmeso, Oma, Mimi (God's goodness)"

**
From http://www.nairaland.com/598034/igbo-names
1. Re: Igbo Names by Nobody: 3:50pm On Feb 09, 2011
"Mmesomachukwu (Meso for short)"

**
2. Re: Igbo Names by amumex: 4:55pm On Feb 09, 2011
"that is a good name. (Meso)"

**
3. Re: Igbo Names by Nobody: 5:09pm On Feb 09, 2011
"^^ Yep! My neice's name . . . my first daughter's getting it too!"

**
4. Re: Igbo Names by mafolayomi(f): 4:58pm On Feb 10, 2011
"Ujujoan:
sound nice, whats d meaning? unisex?"

**
5. Re: Igbo Names by jovi: 5:06pm On Feb 10, 2011
"Means God's goodness or God shares his love/graces, sho get?"
-snip-
This exchange shows how the name Mmesomachukwu changed from an uncommon name in 2011 (according to this commenter) to a frequently given name in __ according to the comment given in Section 2, Excerpt #6 given above (date written Dec 03, 2013)

****
NNEKA
From https://www.behindthename.com/name/nneka
"Given Name NNEKA
GENDER: Feminine
USAGE: Western African, Igbo
Meaning & History
Means "my mother is supreme" in Igbo."
-snip-
I've also found this name's meaning as "my mother is the greatest"

**
From https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nneka
"Nneka is an Igbo given name, and can also be a short form of the Igbo name Nnemkadi.
-snip-
This page also lists some notable people with the name "Nneka".

****
NKECHI
"Nkechi" is an Igbo name meaning "God's own". This name is primarily given to females
Here are some comments about this name from https://www.behindthename.com/name/nkechi/comments
1. "My daughter's name is Nkechinyere which means "What God has given". Nkechi is actually the short form of Nkechinyere so you know I love this name. The meaning of this name is not right on this website. It means "God's own". The meaning of Nkechi is different from the meaning of Nkechinyere. [noted -ed]"
― Adaobi 12/7/2004

**
"Nke - means 'belongs to'
Chi - God
Nkechi - God's property"
― chigba 1/3/2005

**
3. The meaning given to the name Nkechi on your website is wrong. Please refer to the comment of Adaobi. She got it right. "Nkechi" on its own means "God's own". Nkechi can also be the shortened form of "Nkechinyere" meaning "What God has given, God's gift, Gift from God". Would you mind making the necessary updating? [noted -ed]
― chika 3/29/2007

**
4. Mostly such igbo names are given due to what the parent pass through before having a child, Nkechinyere or Nkechi in short are given when a parent conceive when they less expected, it is said to be God who gave or gift from God."

― Chinweikpe 10/26/2016

****
NGOZI
From https://www.onlinenigeria.com/nigeriannames/ad.asp?blurb=644
"Ngozi
Meaning: Blessed
Ngozi translates to "Blessed" in English. It is common with the igbo tribe in Nigeria and primarily used by Females"
-snip-
Click https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ngozi for other meanings of the word "ngozi" in other African languages

****
OBINNA
From https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Obinna
"Obinna is an Igbo name, or sometimes surname. The name's origin is from the Igbo, located in south eastern Nigeria, and is usually male. Though people from other cultures may bear the name. The direct English translation is, "father's heart".[1]"...
-snip-
"obi"=heart + "nna"=father [in the Igbo language]

****
UCHE
From https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Uche
"Uche is a Nigerian name originating among the Igbo people, which can mean "intention", "will", "mind", or "sense". Variants can include Uchechukwu (which means "God's will" or "God's intention"), Ucheoma (which means "beautiful mind"), and Uchendu (which means "thinking/thought of life")."

****
UCHENNA
From https://www.onlinenigeria.com/nigeriannames/ad.asp?blurb=1580
Meaning: The father's will
Uchenna translates to "The father's will" in English. It is common with the Igbo tribe in Nigeria and primarily used by Unisexs
-snip-
I'm not sure if "Uche" is a short form of the name "Uchenna" or is always a short form of that name (and other names).

Also, from what I've read, if I'm not mistaken, Uchenna and Uche are most often given to females.

****
UGONNA
From http://www.nairaland.com/11383/igbo-names-meanings/1
Re: Igbo Names & Their Meanings by chinani(f): 8:28pm On Jun 23, 2006
Ugonna translates "Father's eagle".

Or if God is meant by "Father" than "God's eagle". (But then Ugochi translates to "God's eagle" spot on.)

I've also heard that the meaning of Ugochi is "Divine prestige". The divinity would be God's annointment persay & the prestige would be the eagle so you are the "feather in the cap".

So Ugonna could be "Divine prestige" or "Father's prestige".

Someone, anyone, correct me if I'm wrong. . ."

****
UZOR (CHIBUZOR)
From https://www.onlinenigeria.com/nigeriannames/ad.asp?blurb=4126
"Chibuzor

Meaning: God is the way

Chibuzor translates to "God is the way" in English. It is common with the Igbo tribe in Nigeria and primarily used by Unisexs"

****
Thanks for visiting pancocojams.

Visitor comments are welcome.

Sunday, January 21, 2018

Busi Mhlongo - Izizwe (a South African song promoting an end to xenophobia)

Edited by Azizi Powell

This pancocojams post showcases a video of a live performance of South African singer and songwriter Busi Mhlongo singing her Maskandi song "Izizwe". Two sound files of House remixes of "Izizwe" are also showcased in this post.

Information about Busi Mhlongo is also included in this post along with selected comments from the discussion threads of these examples. According to some of these commenters, the song "Izizwe" promotes the end of xenophobia in South Africa.

In addition, this post presents some information about South Africa's Maskandi music genre.

The content of this post is presented for cultural, entertainment, and aesthetic purposes.

All copyrights remain with their owner.

Thanks to Busi Mhlongo for her musical legacy. Rest in Peace.

Thanks also to all those who are quoted in this post and thanks to the publishers of these videos on YouTube.

****
INFORMATION ABOUT BUSI MHLONGO
From https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Busi_Mhlongo
"Busi Mhlongo (28 October 1947 – 15 June 2010 [1]), born as Victoria Busisiwe Mhlongo, was a virtuoso singer, dancer and composer originally from Inanda in Natal, South Africa.[1][2]

Biography
Drawing on various South African styles such as Mbaqanga, Maskanda*, Marabi and traditional Zulu, fused with contemporary elements from jazz, funk, rock, gospel, rap, opera, reggae and West African music she produced a fresh and exciting sound. Her infectious music and singing style have a universal appeal and her lyrics carry powerful and poignant messages. In the 1960s, she adopted the artistic name Vickie; only later did she became known by Busi Mhlongo. She was an initiated sangoma, which heavily influenced her music.[3][4]"
-snip-
"Busi" is a nickname for "Busisiwe". Here's information about that name from https://www.behindthename.com/name/busisiwe/submitted
"GENDER: Feminine
USAGE: African
PRONOUNCED: boo-see-SEE-weh
CONTRIBUTOR: Nqoh on 6/26/2008
Meaning & History
South African Zulu girl name meaning 'blessed'"
-snip-
*Here's some information about Maskanda (Maskandi) music from
"Maskanda (or Maskandi) is a kind of Zulu folk music that is evolving with South African society. Ethekwini Online describes it as "The music played by the man on the move, the modern minstrel, today’s troubadour. It is the music of the man walking the long miles to court a bride, or to meet with his Chief; a means of transport. It is the music of the man who sings of his real life experiences, his daily joys and sorrows, his observations of the world. It’s the music of the man who’s got the Zulu blues."

Nowadays this is untrue in as much as it is no longer just the domain of men. African women - notably Busi Mhlongo - are also making Maskandi music. Maskandi music is largely popular and mostly consumed in the Kwa-Zulu Natal province, given its rich Zulu heritage and significance to the Zulu tribe. Looking at the genre from a record sales point of view...Maskandi happens to be the 2nd top selling genre in South Africa, after Gospel music. Although Maskandi music can be heard in more urban cities such as Johannesburg and Cape Town, it is important to note that it is largely the played by migrants who come to the big cities to seek a better quality of life and better employment opportunities."...

**
Here's some additional information from https://www.musicinafrica.net/magazine/traditional-music-south-africa "Traditional music in South Africa" By DJ Okapi, 21 Nov 2014

[...]

"Zulu Maskandi and Isicathamiya

The ‘neo-traditional’ genre most closely associated with the amaZulu is maskandi, which emerged in the late 1960s played by migrant workers living in hostels and compounds (enkomponi) near mines. Their music reflected felt a nostalgic yearning for home and was typically played on guitar and by men. Bucking this trend was the late Busi Mhlongo, whose last album Amakholwa explored the connection between maskandi and faith, drawing on gospel, rock and funk influences. While maskandi and gospel address similar themes of yearning for a better life and overcoming hardship, they are stylistically not related. Instead a closer connection between traditional Zulu music and gospel is isicathamiya, a type of acapella gospel music sung by choirs, made famous internationally by Ladysmith Black Mambazo. More recently rapper Zulu Boy managed to fuse traditional Zulu influences into his own brand of hip-hop."

****
SHOWCASE EXAMPLES
Example #1: Busi Mhlongo Live Zithin' izizwe live at Nantes & Roskilde [video]



Bafana Nhlapo, Published on Sep 25, 2009

South African diva, singer and songwriter Busi Mhlongo - Live recordings from the Fin de Siecle Festival in Nantes France, 1997 and the the Roskilde Festival in Denmark 1999. Cameras by Dick Jewell and Marcus Conway. edited by Lianne Cox. Taken from the DVD Busi Mhlongo Urbanzulu live by MELT 2000 cat. No MZADVCD014. featuring Spector Ngwayi, Thierry Mvie, Serge Ngndo, Brice Wassy Ndodile Shezi & Thembisa Khuzwayo
-snip-
The Google translation from Zulu to English of “Zithin' izizwe" is “We are the nations". However, in her introduction to this song as shown in this video, Busi says "'Izizwe' means “foreigner”. I am izizwe to you and you are izizwe to me. All and all we make one”.

Here are selected comments from this video's discussion thread (with Zulu words translated to English by Google translate given below the comment itself). These comments are given in chronological order based on the year that they were published, with the oldest comments given first except for replies. Numbers are assigned for referencing purposes only.

2012
1. Sihle Mndela
"Powerful message this song holds... "Zithini izizwe nina, benhlek'izizwe nina khuluma ngani..."
"Nehlisa isthunzi senu ma Africa masen'bulalana nodwa nje"
-snip-
Google translation from Zulu to English= "What do you say, the nations you're talking about ..."
"Reduce your shade in Africa and kill each other"
-snip-
Remember that Busi Mhlongo said that "izizwe" means "foreigner" so instead of the word "nations", the translation should be "the foreigners you are talking about".

Perhaps a more accurate translation of the second sentence is "Reduce your hate in Africa and stop killing each other."

**
2013
2. Maanka Chipindi
"Are you able to translate please"

**
REPLY
3. N1nG1nJ3r
"Ngingumuntu omhlophe kodwa ngifunda isizulu esikoleni sami.

Uthi: What we are saying, (us, our nation), we are (might be "we aren't) laughing when we say this-

Our hisses are failing, in Africa we are killing eachother like this...

Zulu is complex in its structure and I might be horribly mistaken in its meaning, but it can't be far off as the root words are true, even though their contextual meaning might be convoluted. Hope it helped :)

Also feel free to reply to correct any mistakes :)
-snip-
Google translation from Zulu to English of "Ngingumuntu omhlophe kodwa ngifunda isizulu esikoleni sami.

Uthi" = "I'm a white man but I'm learning the weather at my school.

He says"....

****
2014
4. Olivier South
"RIP sweet sweet sister..we salute you maMhlongo"

**
5. Zama Lunga
"Very powerful, I love the messages her songs hold

Your music will always teach us Ubuntu"
-snip-
Here's information about the Bantu word "ubuntu" from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ubuntu_philosophy
"Ubuntu... is a Nguni Bantu term meaning "humanity". It is often also translated as "humanity towards others", but is often used in a more philosophical sense to mean "the belief in a universal bond of sharing that connects all humanity".[3]"...

****
2015
6. Antoinette Halberstadt
"I would love someone on here to translate the main parts of this song, for those of us who don't speak much or any Zulu!"

**
REPLY
7. Skhalo
"+Antoinette Halberstadt This is basically saying no Xenophobia- Stop killing among our selves"

**
REPLY
8. Antoinette Halberstadt
"+Sello Bopape Thank you Sello. So very relevant now! We should all post it in the comments sections of all the media reports about the latest wave of xenophobic violence that is SO saddening!
-snip-
Skhalo’s screen name apparently was “Sello Bopape” when this online exchange was made.

**
REPLY
9. Skhalo
"Busi Mhlongo - Yehlisan' Umoya Ma-Afrika>>> Calm down/Stop it Africans >>this one is direct saying No to Violence..."

****
Example #2: BlackCoffee feat Busi Mhlongo - Izizwe [sound file]

audrey ndaba, Published on May 28, 2008

i like the message in this song, its so coherent with wats going on in S.A now with the Xenophobia...
-snip-
Here s information about (DJ) Black Coffee from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Black_Coffee_(DJ)
"Nkosinathi Innocent Maphumulo (born 11 March 1976), better known by his stage name Black Coffee, is a South African record producer and DJ. He began his career around 1995[1] and has released five albums[2] as well as a live DVD under his Johannesburg-based record label, Soulistic Music.[3] He is arguably the most prominent electronic music producer in Africa.

[...]

Music Career
In 2005, he launched his career with a remix of Hugh Masekela's 1972 hit Stimela.[14] Later that year he released his self-titled debut album under his Johannesburg based record label Soulistic Music,[13] Black Coffee's wholly owned corporate structure, his team's home base and the jump-off point for himself, and as time has evidenced for many others too.[15] The album featured collaborations with the likes of Thandiswa Mazwai, Hugh Masekela, Busi Mhlongo amongst a few."...
-snip-
Here are selected comments from this video's discussion thread (with Zulu words translated to English by Google translate given below the comment itself). These comments are given in chronological order based on the year that they were published, with the oldest comments given first except for replies. Numbers are assigned for referencing purposes only.

1. Fezile Mbuku, 2008
"i loveeeeeeee this song. blackcoffee yo yo yo yo this is hot."
-snip-
The word "yo" in this sentence probably means something like "yeah".

**
2. Mlulami Dike, 2010
"@Mludja..Black Coffee can make you to be well known by ppl especial youth just like mamu uBusi, i know her because of Black Coffee nd..i respect her with dat uncompetable sharp voice. Black Coffee introduced her into dis House music..I even went to her Live perfomance in Grahamstown in 2008...nd..she turned up da stage into somethin..else..may your soul rest in peace mama. we gonna mic ya.."

**
3. Trompas, 2011
"Please upload the other house version...its too nice..
-snip-
Note that “too nice” is a positive statement meaning "very nice"; "real nice". In contrast, "too __" in American English is often a negative description meaning that the thing or person being described is in excess.

**
4. Odirile Mondlane, 2015
"Growing up! in a foreign country, i understand this song it gets me all emotional at times...everything about it....the message is just precise...one of the songs i do not dance to. i just listen. 'Thini zizwe? Ndi zo yi bika le ndaba, kwa bakithe khaya! :)
-snip-
Google translation's of these words from Zulu to English for “'Thini zizwe? Ndi zo yi bika le ndaba, kwa bakithe khaya! :)" is "What are you feeling? It's about this story, for the homeowners".

However, given Busi Mhlongo's statement that "izizwe" means "foreigners" [as noted in the video given as Example #1], that translation is probably wrong.

**
Lalla Olifant, 2017
"God bless BC...I have been listening to this ever since it existed and it's been so many years, nearly a decade if i am not mistaken and i still think it's my fav track by BC. Rest in peace Mama Mhlongo, we loved you back then, we love you now and we will forever love and cherish you."

****
Example #3: Busi Mhlongo - Izizwe(point 5 remix) [sound file]



Freddy Motsumi, Published on Jul 7, 2011
-snip-
This remix was produced by (musical group, DJs) Point 5. Unfortunately, I haven't found any information about Point 5 online.

Here are selected comments from this video's discussion thread (with Zulu words translated to English by Google translate given below the comment itself). These comments are given in chronological order based on the year that they were published, with the oldest comments given first except for replies. Numbers are assigned for referencing purposes only.

2011
1. tyson dube
"ewe ewe ewe ewe ewe ewe ewe ewe much love for this track"
-snip-
This is a line from that song. According to Google translate "ewe" is the Zulu word for "yes".

**
2. Thanda
"club BANGER!!!!!!!"

**
3. kelly buru
"TUNE!!!!!!!!!"

**
4. Balushi Sekele
"this is the one. old + new = the boom...."
-snip-
"The boom" might be a typo or a mishearing of the African American Vernacular English term "the bomb", meaning something that is very good. "The old" is the original song "Iziziwe" and "the new" is the House remix.

**
5. Mdu Madondo
Mdu Madondo
"Mam' Busi was but divine... House remix off the hook!!"
-snip-
"Off the hook" is an African American Vernacular English phrase meaning "very good".

**
2012
6. Mabuda Yanga Romeo
"Piont5 you am sure u made mam'ubusi proud with this, may her soul rest in peace, its point5 baby and thats wats up!!!!!!!"
-snip-
"Points" refers to "Points 5", the producers of this remix.

**
7. MissLindo Sindane
"One house track I will never get over..."
-snip-
"House" here means the genre of music known as "South African House". There are different categories of South African House music. I don't know which category this is.

****
2011
8. mosima collin Tlabela
"killer song DJ"

**
9. sammwa214
"so happy to have found this song after a streneous search its s hit in kenya"

**
10. Shireen Mzizi
"yeah thats more like it.....we can enjoy international music but we love our own brand"

****
2016
11. Takalani Mkhalele
"You know your a 90's baby if you still jam with this song"

**
REPLY
12, Antoinette Njambali, 2017
"And still know all the lyrics"

****
2017
132. Mihlali Dante Maninjwa
"This jam used to give me goosebumps n in 2017 it still does that. Its a classic"

**
14. Vincent Tawana
"may your soul so rest in peace mama, gone is the most beautiful voice we had in Mzansi"
-snip-
"Mzansi"= "South Africa"

**
15. Oscar 11
"😂😂😁 "Thin' izizwe yea" 🙌🙌🙌 2017 n it still goes in"

**
16. One Bantatetse
"tuuuuuuuune....never gets old."

**
17. Veronica Vilakazi
"It ain't a set if you haven't played this song!"
-snip-
"A set" - a party, a social event that includes music and dancing

** 
18. KG Ndlovu
"thini sizwe ma africa. thini sizwe. what about land africans what about land."

****
Thanks for visiting pancocojams.

Visitor comments are welcome.

The Changing Shape Of Women's Afro Hair Styles (with January 2018 Update)

Edited by Azizi Powell

Update: January 21, 2018

[Pancocojams Editor's comment: This pancocojams post was originally published in 2011. I made a few changes and additions to my 2011 written editor's comment, including the addition of a brief comment about some Black female natural hair styles after 2000.

I replaced a video of African American folk singer Odetta since the one that I had previously published was no longer available. I also replaced a video of African American R&B singer Aretha Franklin with one of South African singer Miriam Makeba since that video of Aretha Franklin was no longer available, and since I already showcased another video of that singer, but hadn't included one of Miriam Makeba. And I added some additional videos of early 21st century Black women's large natural hairstyles and other natural hairstyles.]

****
PANCOCOJAMS EDITOR'S COMMENT
An "afro" (also known as "fro") is an African American term for a natural hairstyle that is worn or was worn by some Black females and Black males. For centuries people in some Black African nations, and some Black people in other part of the world such as in the Fiji Islands and in Australia have been sporting what Americans would consider to be "afros". However, since the early 20th century, with the development & marketing of hair care products for Black people by Madame C. Walker and other Black hair care entrepreneurs, chemically or heat straightened hair were the principle ways that Black women (in the United States) wore their hair. Until the mid 1960s, few African American teenagers and women would have even considered wearing their hair naturally out in public.

The emergence of the afro and other Black natural hairstyles in the United States during the 1960s was closely tied to the "Black is beautiful" movement. That Black pride movement was fueled by the large number of African nations that became politically independent from Europe rule in the 1960s. The hey day of afros for African Americans was in the 1970s. It appears to me that particularly in large urban US cities, more Black people-including teenage females & males-wore their hair in afros during the 1970s than in any previous time or to date. Check out this Soul Train television show video for an example of the different ways African American males & females wore their hair in the 1970s:

Soul Train Line Dance to Curtis Mayfield Get Down



Uploaded by bysolo65 on May 3, 2011

-snip-

In the 1960 & the 1970s, the wider & bigger the afros the more they were highly valued by afro-centric (African cultural centered) Black folks. Indeed, because of the wide and also sometimes "wild" appearance of many afros, one vernacular nickname for the afro that Black folks used was "bush". Calling someone's fro a "bush" could be positive, negative, or neutral depending on who said it, and when & how it was said.

For many Black people, afros are just a hairstyle. I started wearing my hair in an afro in 1966 and I've consistently worn my hair in an afro style ever since then. For me, the afro is much more than a hair style - it's a statement of Black pride. I remember when some Black males and females started wearing their hair in afros, a lot of Black folks were incensed that we would show the world our "back to Africa" roots. And many non-Black folks thought that everyone wearing their hair in a fro was a radical who hated White people. That of course wasn't true then and it isn't true now. Furthermore, lots of people who didn't wear afros- including some Black people - thought and still think that people who wore/wear their hair in afros didn't wash or comb or style or nourish their afro hair. That is also untrue.

From the 1980s to the early 2000s, it seemed that very few African American adults chose to wear their hair in an afro. For example, during that time period the only women I saw wearing afros in my adopted city of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania were a few Black women over the age of 40. I purposely wrote "adults" because even in the 1960s and 1970s, and also today it seems to me that very few African American children under 18 years old wear their hair in afros-although this may be slightly changing now with the attention being paid to more natural hairstyles for Black folks such as corn rolls & dreads (dreadlocks).*

*Added January 2018- This has definitely changed since I wrote this comment. I think that it's less common nowadays to chemically straighten Black girls' hair, particularly before the age of 13 years or so. One commonly found hairstyle for many Black American girls under 12 years of age is wearing their natural hair (or extensions) in multiple breads, often with beads. And a lot of Black American females over 12 years girls wear their natural hair out in long, undefined hair styles that are the same as those shown in the videos for Black women that are found near the end of this updated post.
-end of addition-

Nowadays [written in 2011 but still true in 2018] there appears to be more styles for afros than I remember in the 1960s and 1970s. Since the early 2000s or so, I've been seeing younger Black women wearing closely cropped (very short) afros, or moderatedly short but styled 'fros. And this year (2011), I've been seeing more young African American women (and African American men) sportin' large wide naturals*, but not halo shaped as Angela Davis' hair style was. I think that there are many reasons for the (still moderate) increase in Black folks wearing their hair in afros (or naturals, since I think the term "afros" is rarely used). One reason is the recycling of fashion trends. In addition to the reasons I have already mentioned, some females who wear their hair naturally indicate that they do so because that style is easier to take care of than relaxed (straightened) hairstyles and/or the belief (which I think is fact) that natural hairstyles are usually healthier for the hair.

*"A natural" is another term for an "afro" and other hair styles (such as dreadlocks) for tightly curled* hair that are typical of people of Black African descent when that hair is not hot combed or chemically treated. Person who have natural hairstyles (i.e. afros, twists, locks etc) shampoo and condition their hair. Females or males may highlight their hair with colors and may put beads or cowrie shells in their twists or dreadlocks. Furthermore, afros may be texturized (chemical treatment may be added for a shorter time period)to loosen some of the hair's natural curl. If this happened in the 1960s - 1980s I didn't know about it. Also, females & males may choose to have their afros cut & styled in beauty parlors or barber shops. That said, there is a trend nowadays for some big afros to be worn seemingly unstyled - or maybe I should say that the seemingly unstyled wide afro is a current style.

I attended an event this week (August 2012) and saw a Black woman who was probably in her forties with a very short closely cropped afro that was probably texturized and also dyed blond. I also saw another Black woman around the same age who wore her natural hair (not a wig or hair pieces known as "extensions") in an unstyled wide afro. Her hair was dyed brown with red tinges. Those colors were almost certainly the result of a beauty parlor or barber shop treatment. Furthermore, her hair may have also been chemically treated as it wasn't tightly curled but somewhat straight. Instead of the hair in her afro being tightly curly and close to her head, and big (meaning touching her shoulders in length), her hair was away from her head and went every which way. But she (like me and other Black people) may have some portions of her hair that are naturally straighter than other hair portions, and therefore her wide somewhat straight afro might have been all natural except for the hair colors. Also, there are some Black people who have naturally brown hair or other non-black hair color but in that woman's case her afro hair colors probably weren't "natural". I should also note that these women were very attractive.

*"tightly curled" is the term I prefer for various textures of hair that is considered typical of the hair texture for people of Black African descent although it isn't hair textures of all Black people and isn't hair textures which are exclusive to Black people. I say "textures" because there are a range of tightly curled hair textures. Other terms for "tightly curled" hair such as kinky, nappy, frizzy, coarse, woolly often have negative connotations and can therefore lead to negative consequences by those who use them.
-snip-
Added January 21, 2018
The terms "afro" and "'fro" and the purposely halo shaped short or wide natural hair appear to have been retired from use. Since at least the early 2000s, Black women, in particular, have been wearing their hair in a number of natural hairstyles, including large coils with undefined shapes. This hairstyle is largely the result of combing out multiple thin braids and leaving the hair "as is". That natural hair style is quite different from the purposely rounded, halo shape of 1970s afros. Some examples of these early 2000s to date [2018] Black women's natural hairstyles are found near the end of this updated post along with a few other examples of Black women's natural hairstyles.

****
FEATURED VIDEOS
This post showcases several music videos of Black women wearing their hair in an afro. Videos are presented of featured vocalists from four African nations and from the United States. I've also included a video from the Fiji islands to show examples of what Americans would consider to be afros in that Melanesian nation.

Each featured video is presented with my subjective description of the length and style of the afro given in parenthesis*. By no means is this a comprehensive presentation of the ways that Black women wear afros or the nations of the world where females wear afros.

*I'm not a beautician. My apologies if these descriptions of afros are subjective and simplistic.

Without further comment, here are the featured videos of female afro styles from very closely cropped to very wide:

Angelique Kidjo –“Mallaikka” (Benin, West Africa)



Uploaded by equinoxrox on Apr 28, 2007

African singer Angelique Kidjo from Benin sings love song ballad in Swahil at the Africa Rollback Malaria Concert. English subtitles. On March 12 and 13 in 2005, some of Africa's greatest musical talents got together to play for two nights in downtown Dakar while trying to spread the message about combating malaria.

[a very closely cropped afro which has been dyed blond; Since about the 1990s, a small number of African American women also began to dye their straightened hair blond and dye their (usually) closely cropped or relatively short afro blond.]

**
Laura Mvula -"She"- (In South Africa) - by Damian Weilers



Laura Mvula, Published on Nov 17, 2012

Shot by South African director Damian Weilers in Montagu, Western Cape.
'She' is taken from Laura Mvula's debut EP available now
-snip-
Vocalist Laura Mvula was born in South Africa but grew up in the United Kingdom. Her hair is worn in a closely cropped afro.

Hat tip to http://afroeurope.blogspot.com/2012/11/new-video-new-sound-of-laura-mvula-she.html for alerting me to this video.

****
Cesaria Evora - "Mar de Canal" (Cape Verde, West Africa)



Uploaded by alcom34 on Jun 8, 2007

Voz d'Amor - 2003

[a short afro which appears to be "texturized" (slightly chemically treated?)]

**
Rebecca Malope - “Hamba Lenquola” (South Africa)



Uploaded by MAURA MACIVER on Apr 13, 2008

[moderately short, styled afro]

**
Miriam Makeba - Pata Pata (Live 1967)



Miriam Makeba Official Channel, Published on Mar 17, 2015

[moderately short afro]

**
Aretha Franklin - Jump (Soul Train 70's) (United States)



MyRhythm NSoulTV, Published on Apr 10, 2014

[moderately big/wide afro dyed light brown]

**
ODETTA



pining4apple, Published on Nov 23, 2011

[moderately short, styled afro]

**
Fiji Music (Fiji)



Alexey Bekmuratov on Nov 18, 2009

Vinaka Vakaniu Collection-2

[moderatively big afros]

Also, click http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=P1vrUNfTTBY&feature=related for other photographs of Fijian females and males with what Americans would all "afros".

**
Ethiopian Music Kassahun Taye (sora ye wello bahlawi)



[long style with partially braided hair on top; Americans would call this look a natural hairstyle which if worn out might be called "afros". That said, Ethiopians are unlikely to consider this style an afro.]

**
Natalie Cole - This Will Be (An Everlasting Love) 1975 (United States)



Uploaded by jondbee56 on Aug 8, 2010

[very big/wide halo shaped afro]

**
Esperanza Spalding BLACK GOLD- OFFICIAL (credits) (United States)


Uploaded by montunoartists on Feb 5, 2012

Official Site: http://www.esperanzaspalding.com

...This song is singing to our African American heritage before slavery. Over the decades, so much of the strength in the African American community has seeded from resistance and endurance. I wanted to address the part of our heritage spanning back to pre-colonial Africa and the elements of Black pride that draw from our connection to our ancestors in their own land. I particularly wanted to create something that spoke to young boys.

[very big/wide round shaped afro]

**
[Update January 21, 2018]


**
Viola Davis speaks at Women's March



CNN, Published on Jan 20, 2018

Actress Viola Davis gave a passionate speech at the Women's March in Los Angeles.

[very large, undefined hair coils]


**
DAISHA - GOOD LIFE OFFICIAL VIDEO



iamthedaisha, Published on May 18, 2016

90s house vibes! EP "I Am The Daisha" drops May 20th!

[really very large, undefined hair coils, with other Black women's natural hair styles]

**
Janelle Monáe - Electric Lady [Official Video]



janellemonae, Published on Jul 30, 2014

Janelle Monáe - Electric Lady [Official Video] - Directed By ALAN FERGUSON

[various Black women's natural hairstyles]

**
Cardi B, Michelle Obama and other celebrities show their natural hair!



M.C.rush, Published on Apr 3, 2017

Cardi B, Michelle Obama and other celebrities show their natural hair!

After wearing her hair in protective styles at the White House, now Michelle is free to let her hair hang down. You go girl!

Clips of celebrities included:
Michelle Obama
Uzo Aduba
Brittany Sky
Jessica White
Gabrielle Union
Gugu Mbatha-Raw
Whoopi Goldberg
Kim Fields
Esperanza Spalding
Jenifer Lewis
Kimberly Elise
K.Michelle
Leela James
SZA
Jhene Aiko
Porsha Williams
Goapele
Teyana Taylor
Winnie Harlow
Rihanna
Aja Naomi King
Keri Hilson
Denise Boutte
Jasmine Tookes
Toya Wright
Karlie Redd
Cardi B.
Rasheeda
Masika Kalysha
Tahiry Jose
Tammy Rivera
Kenya Moore

[various Black women's natural hairstyles]

****
RELATED LINK
http://pancocojams.blogspot.com/2012/06/videos-of-african-american-males-music.html "Videos of African American Males (Music & Natural Hairstyles), Part 1"

That post presents videos of afro hair styles worn by various African American non-religious music performers (from 1969 - 2002). That post also includes an essay that I wrote on "The Psycho-Social Implications For African Americans of Natural Hair Styles".

Note: I haven't updated that series on Black male hairstyles to include post 2002 fashions.

****
The content of this post is provided for historical, cultural, and aesthetic purposes.

All copyrights remain with their owners.

Thanks to all those who are featured in this videos and thanks to the publishers of these videos on YouTube.
Thanks for visiting pancocojams.

Visitor comments are welcome.

Saturday, January 20, 2018

Actress Viola Davis' Powerful Speech At The Women's March 2018, Los Angeles, California (Video & Unofficial Transcript)

Edited by Azizi Powell

This pancocojams post is a video and an unofficial transcript of Viola Davis' powerful speech at the 2018 Women's March in Los Angeles, California. Other Women's Marches were held in a number of cities throughout the United States.

The content of this post is presented for sociological, cultural, political, motivational, and inspirational purposes.

All copyrights remain with their owners.

Thanks to Viola Davis, and all the organizers and participants of the Women's March, Me Too Movement, and Resist! Movements.
-snip-
Click https://www.nytimes.com/2018/01/20/us/womens-march.html for a New York Times article about the Women's Marches in the United States (January 20,2018).

and

This daily kos diary includes photos and comments about the Women's Marches in various United States cities: https://www.dailykos.com/stories/2018/1/20/1734458/-Stronger-than-ever-Check-out-the-massive-roaring-crowds-across-the-nation-for-the-Women-s-March. [Warning for those working at schools or other public institutions: There's one instance of profanity occurs in the comments.]

****
SHOWCASE VIDEO: Viola Davis speaks at Women's March



CNN, Published on Jan 20, 2018

Actress Viola Davis gave a passionate speech at the Women's March in Los Angeles.
-snip-
Added January 21, 2018
I also want to note that I was particularly impressed with Viola Davis' large early 21st century non-defined, freely coiled hair natural hair, which is quite different from the large Angela Davis type halo shaped afros of the late 1960s and the 1970s.

However, I was disappointed and disgusted to read a number of the comments in that YouTube video's discussion thread which were racially offensive, including some comments that referred to Ms. Davis as a monkey, and some comments that were sexually offensive. When I read some of that discussion thread, those types of negative comments outnumbered the ones that were politically supportive of Trump and, therefore, opposed to the causes that Viola Davis discussed.

****
UNOFFICIAL TRANSCRIPT OF VIOLA DAVIS' SPEECH AT WOMEN'S MARCH 2018
"In the words of my fellow American, Malcolm X, I'm gonna make it plain.

In 1877, America, the greatest country on this planet, put laws in place called the Jim Crow laws. And the Jim Crow laws restricted the rights to quadroons, octoroons, Blacks, Hispanics, Indians, and Malays. Restricted medical. Restricted relationships. Restricted education.Restricted life.

It told us that we were "less than" and it came on the heels of the 13th Amendment. It came on the heels of fifty five individual great Americans writing the greatest document called the Constitution of the United States, saying "We the people".


Now the reason why those destructive laws came into place, I think can be greatly described by Martin Luther King. And what he said about time is. He said "I'm not ready to wait a hundred years, or two hundred years for things to change. That I think actually that time is neutral. That it can either be used constructively or destructively. That human progress rarely rolls in on inevitability. It is through human dedication, an effort, that we move forward. And that when we don't work, what happens is that time actually becomes an ally to the primitive forces of social stagnation. And the guardians of the status quo are in their oxygen tanks keeping the old order alive.

And so that time needs to be helped by every single moment doing right.

And the reason why these Jim Crow laws were in place that stifled my rights and your rights is because we fell asleep.

We fall asleep when we're moving ahead and we don't look to the left and the right and see that we're no including people in this move ahead. Because really, at the end of the day, we only move forward when it doesn't cost of anything. But I'm here today saying that no one and nothing can be great unless it cost you something.

One out of every five women will be sexually assaulted and raped before she reaches the age of eighteen. One out of six boys. If you are a woman of color and you are raped before you reach the age of eighteen, than you are 66% more likely to be sexually assaulted again.

Seventy percent of girls who are sex trafficed are girls of color. They are coming out of the foster care system. They a re coming out of poverty. It is a billion dollar industry. When they go into the sex trafficing business- and they call it a business, trust me - more than likely they are gang raped.

I am speaking today not just for the 'Me Toos', 'cause I was a 'Me Too,' but when I raise my hand, I am aware of all the women who are still in silence. The women who are faceless. The women who don't have the money and don't have the constitution and who don't have the confidence and who don't have the images in our media that gives them a sense of self-worth enough to break their silence that's rooted in the shame of assault, that's rooted in the stigma of assault.

Written on the Statue of Liberty is "Come, Come you tiredless, poor, yearning to breath free- to breath free."

Every single day, your job as an American citizen is not just to fight for your rights. It's to fight for the right of every individual that is taking a breath, whose heart is pumping and breathing on this earth..

And like the originators of this "Me Too", the Fannie Lou Hamers, the Recy Taylor who in 1944 was gang raped by six White men, and she spoke up. Rosa Parks fought for her rights. She was silenced. To the Tarana Burkes. To the originators, the first women to speak out -it cost them something. Nothing and no one can be great without a cost.

Listen, I am always introduced as an award winning actor. But my testimony is one of poverty. My testimony is one of being sexually assaulted, and was very much seeing a childhood that was robbed from me. And I know that every single day when I think of that, I know that the trauma of those events are still with me today. And that's what drives me to, to the voting booth. That's what allows me to listen to the women who are still in silence. That's what allows me, even to become a citizen on this planet, is the fact that we are here to connect. That we are here as three hundred and twenty four million people living on this earth to know that every day that we breath and we live that we gotta bring up everyone with us.

I stand in solidarity with all women who raise their hands because I know that it was not easy. And my hope for the future, my hope- and I do hope- that we never go back.

That it's not a just about clapping your hands and screaming and shouting every time someone says something that sounds good. It's about keeping it rolling once you go home."
-snip-
This is my transcription of Viola Davis' speech* which is shown in the video given above. I used italics to represent the words that Ms Davis emphasized in this speech. The space near the beginning of this speech represents a (I believe purposeful pause that Ms. Davis made in her remarks.

This transcription doesn't include audience cheers to this speech.

Additions and corrections are welcome.

For the record, Ms. Davis isn't looking at any notes while she deliver this speech.

Here are links to some information about the four specific women that Viola Davis gave a shout out to in her speech:
From https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fannie_Lou_Hamer
"Fannie Lou Hamer (/ˈheɪmər/; born Fannie Lou Townsend; October 6, 1917 – March 14, 1977) was an American voting rights activist, a leader in the Civil Rights Movement, and philanthropist who worked primarily in Mississippi. She was instrumental in organizing Mississippi's Freedom Summer for the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC). She was the vice-chair of the Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party, which she represented at the 1964 Democratic National Convention in Atlantic City, New Jersey."...

**
From https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Recy_Taylor
"Recy Taylor (née Corbitt; December 31, 1919 – December 28, 2017)[2]:297 was an African American woman from Abbeville in Henry County, Alabama, US. She was born and raised in a sharecropping family in the Jim Crow era Southern United States. Taylor's refusal to remain silent about a brutal rape she suffered, perpetrated by white men, led to organizing in the African-American community on behalf of justice and civil rights."

**
From https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rosa_Parks
"Rosa Louise McCauley Parks (February 4, 1913 – October 24, 2005) was an activist in the Civil Rights Movement, whom the United States Congress called "the first lady of civil rights" and "the mother of the freedom movement".[1]

On December 1, 1955, in Montgomery, Alabama, Parks refused to obey bus driver James F. Blake's order to give up her seat in the "colored section" to a white passenger, after the whites-only section was filled. Parks was not the first person to resist bus segregation. Others had taken similar steps, including Bayard Rustin in 1942,[2] Irene Morgan in 1946, Lillie Mae Bradford in 1951,[3] Sarah Louise Keys in 1952, and the members of the ultimately successful Browder v. Gayle 1956 lawsuit (Claudette Colvin, Aurelia Browder, Susie McDonald, and Mary Louise Smith) who were arrested in Montgomery for not giving up their bus seats months before Parks. NAACP organizers believed that Parks was the best candidate for seeing through a court challenge after her arrest for civil disobedience in violating Alabama segregation laws, although eventually her case became bogged down in the state courts while the Browder v. Gayle case succeeded.[4][5]

Parks' act of defiance and the Montgomery bus boycott became important symbols of the modern Civil Rights Movement. She became an international icon of resistance to racial segregation"...

**
From https://hellogiggles.com/news/me-too-movement-black-woman/ "Actually, a black woman created the "Me Too" movement 10 years ago" by CAITLIN GALLAGHER, October 18, 2017
..."Although most people think the idea originated with Milano, the original “Me Too” movement was started by Tarana Burke, and she created the campaign for the youth organization Just Be Inc. in 2007"....


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